Development, application and Prospect of magnesium

2022-08-17
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Since the 1970s and 1980s, with the advancement of global industrialization and the large-scale development and utilization of resources, various metal resources such as aluminum and iron are gradually reducing or even drying up, and new alternative materials need to be sought; With the progress of human society, the requirements for the protection of the living environment are further improved. For example, the requirements of modern automobile weight reduction, energy conservation and consumption reduction are rising, and lightweight has become an important goal of automobile material selection. Under the premise that resources and environment have become the primary premise of human sustainable development, magnesium and magnesium alloys, as a new material of strategic significance for maintaining social sustainable development, have set off a new upsurge of development and application in the world

magnesium is the lightest metal structural material (density 1.74g/cm3) that can be applied in engineering in the world at present, and its weight is only 2/3 of aluminum and 1/4 of steel. Magnesium alloy has high specific strength and specific stiffness (second only to titanium alloy in the second place of metal materials), good damping and shock absorption performance, good thermal conductivity, strong electromagnetic shielding ability, easy recycling, and good environmental compatibility. Because of these excellent properties, it has a wide application prospect in national defense and military industry, aerospace, transportation, 3C electronic products, home office and many other fields. In addition, magnesium is rich in resources, with the content of 2.3% in the crust, ranking sixth. The magnesium content in seawater is 1.1kg/m3, so the development and application of magnesium resources have great potential. At present, the development and application of magnesium is far less mature than that of steel, aluminum and copper, so "there is no material in the field of materials like magnesium, and the potential and reality are so reversed." (UK: HN)

China has the world's largest reserves of magnesium resources, unique magnesium resources with huge reserves, low price and high quality, and is also the world's largest producer and exporter of magnesium. At present, China's magnesium production capacity accounts for 3/4 of the world, and its output accounts for more than 1/2 of the world. However, the application of magnesium resources in China, especially magnesium alloys, is seriously lagging behind. More than 80% of magnesium as primary raw materials - raw magnesium is exported at a low price, which is a typical resource export-oriented industry. Therefore, vigorously developing and applying magnesium products, implementing the national magnesium alloy development and application plan, and comprehensively improving the technological level and technological innovation ability of the magnesium industry are conducive to the sustainable supply of resources and the harmonious progress of society

therefore, the Ministry of science and technology, after preliminary strategic research, organized relevant departments and extensive research by experts at home and abroad, listed the "development, application and industrialization of magnesium alloys" as a major project in the field of materials in the "Tenth Five Year" National Science and technology development plan, and implemented a five-year scientific and technological breakthrough from 2001 to 2005

2 new progress in the development and application of magnesium alloys

through five years of joint scientific and technological research, new progress has been made in technology

it has broken through a number of core technologies and key industrialization technologies that restrict industrial development. Some indicators have reached and approached the world's advanced level, and some have leading advantages. The engineering technology of dehydration of bischofite to produce anhydrous magnesium chloride has laid a foundation for the large-scale development of magnesium resources in salt lakes in Western China; High efficiency and low cost micro arc oxidation treatment technology and equipment for magnesium products fill the gap at home and abroad, and realize industrial application; The technology of Pidgeon magnesium smelting process has been continuously improved, the feed magnesium ratio has been reduced by 17%, the resources have been effectively saved, the reduction cycle has been shortened by 20%, the production efficiency has been improved, and the dust and flue gas emissions have been reduced; A short process of continuous casting of high-quality magnesium alloy by direct alloying of crude magnesium refining has been developed, which improves the output and quality of magnesium alloy and reduces the cost by 15%; The successfully researched laser argon arc hybrid heat source welding equipment and process have reached the world advanced level in the production of bicycles and motorcycles because the sealing machine is used as the last process in the packaging production line; The development of magnesium alloy grain refinement technology has laid a technical foundation for the research and development of plastic deformation processing materials; The development of magnesium high-grade refractory and non refractory materials and magnesium compound functional materials has improved the application value of magnesium resources and broken the technical barriers set by advanced industrial countries

we have successfully developed magnesium alloy cold and hot chamber die-casting machines and supporting equipment with independent intellectual property rights, and formed 10 die-casting machine products from 160 tons to 3000 tons, with a share of 50% in the domestic market, basically meeting the domestic magnesium alloy die-casting production demand; The development of "magnesium alloy melting furnace", "magnesium alloy melt protective gas generator", "volumetric quantitative suction and injection system", "multi gas high-precision gas distribution and uninterrupted stable flow gas supply system" and "die dual path thermostat" has successfully realized the nationalization of key auxiliary equipment, reduced the amount of equipment investment, and made die-casting production enterprises have more choices

the key engineering technologies such as material research, product design, mold manufacturing, die-casting molding to surface corrosion prevention have been solved by adopting the joint research mode of production, learning and research. Successfully developed and applied 25 kinds of magnesium alloy motorcycle parts, sold 900000 equipment, 52 kinds of magnesium alloy automobile parts, loaded 546500 vehicles, the maximum use of magnesium parts for micro cars is 9 kg, and the maximum use of magnesium parts for cars is 8.17 kg; 10million magnesium alloy 3C product parts of 14 categories and 8 train brake parts have laid a good foundation for further expanding the application

a relatively complete magnesium alloy industry chain and Technological Development and innovation system have been gradually formed during the key research. Ten industrialization demonstration bases with different characteristics, three national magnesium alloy technology R & D centers and three international cooperation laboratories have been established nationwide, which has effectively promoted the optimal allocation of resources and created conditions for the sustainable, healthy, rapid and coordinated development of magnesium technology

at the same time, remarkable results have been achieved in the implementation of the three strategies of "talents, patents and standards". The project gathered more than 1000 scientific researchers from 12 universities, 12 scientific research institutes and 48 Enterprises in 22 provinces, cities, autonomous regions and cities specifically designated in the state plan, and trained 321 postdoctoral, doctoral and master's degrees; A total of 205 patents have been applied for, including 135 invention patents, 60 utility models and 10 designs, and 69 have been authorized so far; 81 national and enterprise standards were formulated and revised, and a framework of magnesium alloy standard system was initially formed

in short, after five years of hard work, the "magnesium alloy development, application and industrialization" project has fully implemented the strategic deployment of the Ministry of science and technology. While major breakthroughs have been made in a number of key technologies, the introduction of various systems of the gold testing tensile machine has raised the development and application of magnesium alloys to a new level, greatly promoting the application and industrialization of magnesium alloys

3 prospects for the development of magnesium industry

in the past few years, under the guidance and drive of the national science and technology plan, the science and technology of China's magnesium industry has developed rapidly. However, due to the late start of the development and application of magnesium alloy materials, the lack of systematic in-depth research and long-term accumulation of large-scale production and application, the technical level is still not high, and there are still many theoretical and technical problems to be solved. In particular, basic theoretical research and plastic deformation processing technology need to be strengthened and improved. At the same time, the integrated application technology in vehicles and other means of transportation is not mature, which limits the mass application of magnesium alloys, which is also a technical problem that needs to be solved in the future

magnesium is in sufficient supply from the perspective of resources, and will play a more important role in the development of structural materials in the future. However, it needs the efforts of scientists to make it have higher strength and plasticity, easier to prepare at low cost, and easier to process into various structural components. This is a long-term goal and a great ideal. In the next five years, according to the current situation of the development of China's magnesium industry, with the key technologies and weak links in the industrial chain as the technical focus and the application of the automotive industry as the main direction, we will actively carry out technical research and development work such as high-strength, high toughness, corrosion-resistant magnesium alloy, wrought magnesium alloy processing and forming, and the forming process of large and complex magnesium alloy parts, so as to gradually solve the problems of low strength, poor plasticity The three technical problems of non corrosion resistance promote the wide application of magnesium

magnesium industry is a rising industry with broad market prospects. In addition to the active investment of entrepreneurs and scientists, its sustainable and healthy development also requires the state to formulate and implement policies and systems conducive to the orderly development of magnesium industry. In view of the fact that the market for large amount of magnesium consumption in Chinese Mainland has not yet formed and the domestic demand for magnesium is seriously insufficient, extensive publicity should be carried out to let all sectors of society "know magnesium for magnesium use", be familiar with its statistically estimated commonalities with other metals, understand its own personality, and encourage the use of special lower clamps for targeted stretching: the U-shaped opening is 92mm long and 75mm wide Φ One set of 18x100mm connecting shaft is developed and utilized to avoid wandering in the simple imitation stage for a long time. Formulate policies to encourage popularization and application, and promote the organic combination of magnesium production industry and application industry, such as automobile industry, motorcycle industry, 3C industry, etc; Encourage enterprises to integrate resources, pursue the maximization of interests, and promote enterprises to make efforts in internal integration, that is, on the basis of the existing capital structure, create and maintain competitive advantages by adjusting internal resources, controlling costs, improving productivity, developing new products, expanding new markets, and improving management capabilities. This is also conducive to cultivating the terminal market. Through the role of policies, promote the existing magnesium production enterprises in China to work hard on strategic management

in order to promote the development and application of magnesium alloys, a series of regulations and standards have been formulated and implemented in combination with the needs of social development and environmental protection. For example, Europe has introduced fuel consumption standards for automobiles, and Japan has formulated household appliance recycling laws in the construction of environmental regulations. These regulations and standards not only protect the interests of society and the public, but also promote the development and application of magnesium alloy products. China has also implemented the European No. III vehicle emission standard and formulated "household appliance recycling regulations". The implementation of these environmental protection policies will undoubtedly play a positive role in reducing the weight and consumption of motor vehicles and reducing exhaust emissions, and will also effectively promote the development and application of magnesium alloy materials and form a regulatory driving mechanism

with the rapid development of magnesium industry, the shortage of talents engaged in basic theoretical research and application development of magnesium is becoming more and more prominent. Therefore, strengthening higher education, vocational education and vocational training, and creating a group of young backbones who can succeed in the development of magnesium industry, understand technology, and can take on the front-line tasks of production and research is also one of the important tasks

the development task of magnesium industry science and technology is very heavy. In the future, we should adhere to the market-oriented and Enterprise Oriented Innovation System of combining production, learning and research, and gradually improve the technical service platform to promote the development of magnesium industry science and technology. With the development of science and technology in magnesium industry today, we should pay special attention to integration. The successfully developed technologies and products should be integrated and applied to give play to the role of science and technology as the primary productive force. The science and technology in magnesium industry should be unified and standardized, integrated management, step-by-step and planned implementation, so that the limited resources can play a greater role and meet the better and faster development of magnesium industry. (end)

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